You can also find my publication list on Google Scholar, Research Gate and ORCID


M. Wille, C. Tolf, N. Lattore-Margalef, R. A. M. Fouchier, R. A. Halpin, D. E. Wentworth, J. Ragwani, O. G. Pybus, B. Olsen, J. Waldenström. 2021. Evolutionary features of a prolific subtype of avian influenza A virus in European waterfowl. bioRix. doi: [link]

George, A. M.*, M. Wille*, J. Wang, K. Anderson, S. Cohen, J. Moselen, L. Y. Y. Lee, W. W. Suen, J. Bingham, A. E. Dalziel, A. C. Hurt, D. T. Williams, Y-M. Deng, I. G. Barr. 2021. A novel and highly divergent Canine Distemper Virus lineage causing distemper in ferrets in Australia. bioRix doi: [link]

Naguib, M. M.P. ErikssonE. JaxJ. NilssonC. SihlbomC. LindskogC. BrojerB.-M. OlssonM. WilleJ. WaldenstromG. LarsonR. H. S. KrausA. LundkvistB. OlsenJ. D. JarhultP. Ellstrom. 2020. Revealing interspecies transmission barriers of avian influenza A viruses. bioRxiv. doi: [link]


González-Acuña, D. A.,  L. Moreno, M Wille,  B. Herrmann, M. J. Kinsella,  R. L. Palma. 2021. Parasites of chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) from three localities in the Antarctic Peninsula and a review of their parasitic fauna. Polar Biology. 44: 2099–2105

Wille, M. 2021. King Island Ruddy Turnstones front and centre in two peer-reviewed publications about viruses. VWSG Bulletin; Journal of the Victorian Wader Study Group. 39-42. [not peer-reviewed]. [OA, link]

Wille, M., M. Shi, M. Klaassen, A. C. Hurt, E. C. Holmes. 2020. RNA virome abundance and diversity is associated with host age in a bird species. Virology. 561: 98-106. doi: [OA, link]
– This article was initially a preprint on bioRxiv. doi: [link]

Hayer, J., M. Wille, A. Font, M, González-Aravena, H. Norder, M. Malmberg. 2020. Four novel picornaviruses detected in Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) in Chile. Virology. 560: 116-123 doi: [link, OA]
– This article was initially a preprint on bioRxiv. doi. [link]

Wille, M., J. L. Geoghegan, E. C. Holmes. 2021. How accurately can we assess zoonotic risk? PLoS Biology. 19(4): e3001135. [OA, link]
– Interview with Cosmos Magazine: Cosmos Q&A: Predicting the next pandemic
– Media stories: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17

Geoghegan,  J. L., F. Di Giallonardo, M. Wille, A. S. Ortiz-Baez, V. A. Costa, T. Ghaly, J. C. O. Mifsud, O. M. H. Turnbull, D. R. Bellwood, J. E. Williamson, E. C. Holmes. 2020. Host evolutionary history and ecology shape virome composition in fishes. Virus Evolution. veab005, [OA, link]
– This article was initially a preprint on bioRxivdoi: [link]


Barbosa, A., A. Varsani, V. Morandini, W. Grimaldi, R.E.T. Vanstreels, J. I. Diaz , T. Boulinier, M. Dewar, D. González-Acuña, R. Gray, C. R. McMahon, G. Miller , M. Power, A. Gamble, M. Wille. 2020. Risk assessment of SARS-CoV-2 in Antarctic wildlife. Science of the Total Environment. 775: e143352. doi:  [OA, link]
This article was initially a preprint on 2020080478 .doi: 10.20944/preprints202008.0478.v1  [link]

Parry, R.*, M. Wille*, O. H. Turnbull, J. L. Geoghegan, E. C. Holmes. 2020. Divergent influenza-like viruses of amphibians and fish support an ancient evolutionary association. Viruses. 12: 1042; doi: [OA, link]
This article was initially a preprint on bioRxiv. doi: [link]

Wille, M. and E. C. Holmes. 2020. Wild birds as reservoirs for diverse and abundant gamma- and deltacoronaviruses. FEMS Microbiology Reviews. fuaa026, [OA, link]
Winner of the 2020 best article award from FEMS Microbiology Reviews
– Popular Science on the Doherty Website: “Wild birds are neglected hosts for coronaviruses
– Interview with FEMS: Michelle Wille and Edward Holmes

Wille, M.*, E. Harvey*, M. Shi, D. Gonzalez-Acuna, E. C. Holmes and A. C. Hurt. 2020. Sustained RNA virome diversity in Antarctic penguins and their ticks. The ISME Journal.  [OA, link]
Shortlisted for The ISME Journal 2020 Best Paper Award
– This article was initially a preprint on bioRxiv. doi: [link]
– Popular Science in “Pursuit”: Penguin viruses on the frozen continent

Marcelino, V. R., P. T. L. C. Clausen, J. P. Buchmann, M. Wille, J. R. Iredell, W. Meyer, O. Lund, T. C. Sorrell, E. C. Holmes. 2019. CCMetagen: comprehensive and accurate identification of eukaryotes and prokaryotes in metagenomic data. Genome Biology. 21:103 [OA, link]
– A web version of the tool can be accessed here:
– This article was initially a preprint on bioRxiv. doi: [OA, link]

Wille, M., J. J. Wensman, S. Larsson, R. van Damme, A.-K. Theelke, J. Hayer, M. Malmberg. 2020. Evolutionary genetics of canine respiratory coronavirus and recent introduction into Swedish dogs. Infection, Genetics and Evolution.  doi: [OA, link]

Wille, M. 2020. Unravelling virus community ecology in bats through the integration of metagenomics and community ecology. Molecular Ecology. 29:23–25 doi: [OA, link]


Wille, M. & E. C. Holmes. 2019. The Ecology and Evolution of Influenza Viruses. In Neumann, G and Kawaoka, Y. (eds)Influenza: The Cutting Edge; Perspectives in Medicine. Coldspring Harbour Laboratory Press. p1-19. [OA, link]

Tepper, V., M. Nykvist, A. Gillman, E. Skog, M. Wille, H. Söderström Lindström, C. Tang, R. H. Lindberg, Å. Lundkvist, J. D. Järhult. 2019. Influenza A/H4N2 Mallard infection experiments further indicate zanamivir as less prone to induce environmental resistance development than oseltamivir. Journal of General Virology. [OA, link]

Wille, M., S. Lisovski, A. Risely, D. Rochier, M. Ferenczi, F. Y. K. Wong, A. C. Breed, M. Klaassen, A. C. Hurt. 2019. Serological evidence of exposure to H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in migratory shorebirds sampled in Australia. Emerging Infectious Disease. 25: 1903-1910. doi: 10.3201/eid2510.190699 [OA, link].
– Popular Science in “Pursuit”: How our avian athletes could spread influenza

Naguib, M. M., J. H. Verhagen, A. Mostafa, M. Wille, R. Li, A. Graaf, J. D. Järhult, P. Ellström, S. Zohari, Å. Lundkvist, B. Olsen. 2019. Global patterns of avian influenza A(H7): virus evolution and zoonotic threats. FEMS Microbiological Reviews. fuz019, [OA, link]

Wille, M., M. Shi, M. Klaassen, A. C. Hurt, E. C. Holmes. 2019. Virome heterogeneity and connectivity in waterfowl and shorebird communities. ISME Journal. doi:
This article was initially a preprint: bioRxiv. doi: [OA, link]
– Popular Science in “Nature Community Behind the Paper”: A duck is not a duck is not a duck

Chang, W.-S., J. H.-O. Petterson, C. Le Lay, M. Shi, N. Lo, M. Wille, J.-S. Eden, E. C. Holmes. 2019. Novel hepatitis D-like agents in vertebrate and invertebrates. Virus Evolution. vez021, [OA, link]
– This article was initially a preprint: bioRxiv. doi: [OA, link]

Wille, M., M. Aban, J. Wang, N. Moore, S. Shan, J. Marshall, D. Gonzalez-Acuna, D. Vijaykrishna, J. Buttler, J. Wang, R. J. Hall, D. T. Williams, A. C. Hurt. 2019. Antarctic penguins as reservoirs of diversity for avian avulaviruses. Journal of Virology. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00271-19 [OA, link]

Marcelino, V. R. M. WilleA. C. HurtD. Gonzalez-AcunaM. Klaassen, T. Schlub, J.-S. EdenM. ShiJ. R. IredellT. C. SorrellE. C. Holmes. 2019. Meta-transcriptomics reveals a diverse antibiotic resistance gene pool in avian microbiomes. BMC Biology. 17:31. doi: [OA, link]
-This article was initially a preprint: bioRxiv. doi: [OA, link]
-Popular Science in “New Scientist”: Antibiotic resistance genes are showing up in Antarctic penguins 
-Popular Science in “On Biology”: The canary in the superbug mine


Wille, M., H. J. Netter, M. Littlejohn, L. Yuen, M. Shi, J.-S. Eden, M. Klaassen, E. C. Holmes, A. C. Hurt. 2018. A divergent hepatitis-D like agent in birds. Viruses. 10:720. doi: [OA, link]
-This article was initially a preprint: bioRxiv. doi: [OA, link]
-Popular Science on “TWiV”: TWiV 546: Delta blues and chitlins (starts at ~21 mins)

Wille, M., J.-S. Eden, M. Shi, M. Klaassen, A. C. Hurt, E. C. Holmes. 2018. Virus-virus interactions and host ecology are associated with RNA virome structure in wild birds. Molecular Ecology. doi :10.1111/mec.14918 [$, link]

Wille, M., C. Bröjer, Å. Lundkvist, J. D. Järhult. 2018. Alternate routes of influenza A virus infection in Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Veterinary Research. 49:110. doi: 10.1186/s13567-018-0604-0 [OA, link]
Popular Science: How to infect your duck, with science

Wille, M., N. Latorre-Margalef, C. Tolf, R. Halpin, D. Wentworth, R. A. M. Fouchier, J. Raghwani, O. G. Pybus, B. Olsen, J. Waldenström. 2018. Where do all the subtypes go? Temporal dynamics of H8-H12 influenza A viruses in waterfowl. Virus Evolution. 4(2): doi: [OA, link]

Chamings, A., T. Nelson, J. Vibin, M. Wille, M Klaassen, S. Alexandersen. 2018. Detection and characterisation of coronaviruses in migratory and non-migratory Australian wild birds. Scientific Reports. 8: doi:10.1038/s41598-018-24407-x [OA, link]

Helin, A.S, M. Wille, C. Atterby, J. D. Järhult, J. Waldenström, J. R. Chapman. 2018. A rapid and transient innate immune response to avian influenza infection in mallards. Molecular Immunology. 95: 64-72 [$, link]

Helin, A.S, M. Wille, C. Atterby, J. D. Järhult, J. Waldenström, J. R. Chapman. 2018. Expression of immune genes RIG-I and Mx in mallard ducks infected with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI): A dataset. Data in Brief. doi: [OA, link]

van Dijk, J.G.B, J.H. Verhagen, M. Wille, J. Waldenström. 2018. Host and virus ecology as determinants of influenza A virus transmission in wild birds. Current Opinion in Virology 28:26-36 [OA, link]
-Popular Science: Flu transmission – a review

Wille, M., H. Yin, Å. Lundkvist, J. Xu, S. Muradrasoli, J. D. Järhult. 2018. RNAlater® is a viable storage option for avian influenza sampling in logistically challenging conditions. Journal of Virological Methods 252:32-36. [$, link]

Nykvist, M., A. Gillman, H. Soderström Linström, C. Tang, G. Fedorova,  Å. Lundkvist, N. Latorre-Margalef, M. Wille, J. D. Järhult. 2018. In vivo Mallard experiments indicate that zanamivir has less potential for environmental resistance development than oseltamivir. Journal of General Virology. doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.000977. [$, link]


J. Waldenström, T. Kuiken, M. Wille. 2017. Narrative overview on wild bird migration in the context of highly pathogenic avian influenza incursion into the European Union. EFSA supporting publication 2017:EN1283.22pp.doi:10.2903/sp.efsa.2017.EN1283 [OA, link]

Wille, M., N. Latorre-Margalef, J. Waldenström. 2017. Of Ducks and Men: Ecology and Evolution of a Zoonotic Pathogen in a Wild Reservoir Host. In Hurst C. (eds) Modeling the Transmission and Prevention of Infectious Disease.  Advances in Environmental Microbiology, vol 4. Springer, Cham. pp 247-286. [$, link]

Wille, M., K. Lindqvist, S. Muradrasoli, B. Olsen, J.D. Järhult. 2017. Urbanization and the dynamics of RNA viruses in Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 51: 89-97 [$, link]

Borg, O., M. Wille, P. Kjellander, U. A. Bergvall, P.-E. Lindgren, J. Chirico, Å. Lundkvist. 2017. Expansion of spatial and host range of Puumala virus in Sweden: an increasing threat for humans? Epidemiology and Infection. 2: doi: 10.1017/S0950268817000346 [$, link]

Wille, M., N. Latorre-Margalef, C. Tolf, D. Stallknecht, J. Waldenström. 2017. No evidence for homosubtypic immunity of influenza H3 in Mallards following vaccination in a natural-experimental system. Molecular Ecology 26: 1420–1431. doi: 10.1111/mec.13967. [OA, link]
-Popular Science: The conundrum of influenza A virus diversity and host immune responses – lessons from a vaccination experiment in Mallards


Wille, M., S. McBurney, G. J. Robertson, S. I. Wilhelm, D. S. Blehert, C. Soos, R. Dunphy, H. Whitney. 2016. A pelagic outbreak of avian cholera in North American gulls: Scavenging as a primary source of transmission? Journal of Wildlife Disease. 52(4): 793–802 [OA, link]

Lang, A. S., C. Lebarbenchon, A. M. Ramey, G. J. Robertson, J. Waldenström, M. Wille. 2016. Assessing the role of seabirds in the ecology of influenza A viruses. Avian Diseases. 60(1 Suppl):378-86. doi: 10.1637/11135-050815-RegR [$, link]
-Popular Science: Seabirds and flu, a review

Humphries, G. R. W., S A Flemming, A. J. Gladics, S. Hammer, K. A. Hart, K. Hirata, M. Antolos, P. J. Kappes, E. Mangusdottir, H. I. Major, F. McDuie, K. Mcomber, R. A. Orben, M. S. Schmid, M. Wille. 2016. Bridging the gap from student to senior scientist: recommendations for engaging early career scientists in professional biological societies. Marine Ornithology. 44(2): 157–166. [link]

Wille, M., S. Muradrasoli, A. Nilsson, J.D. Järhult. 2016. High prevalence and putative lineage maintenance of avian coronaviruses in Scandinavian waterfowl. PLoS ONE. 11(3): e0150198. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0150198 [OA, link]

Chapman, J.R., A. S. Helin, M. Wille, C. Atterby, J.D. Järhult, J. S. Fridlund, J. Waldenström. 2016. A panel of stably expressed reference genes for real-time qPCR gene expression studies of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). PLoS ONE 11(2): e0149454. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0149454 [OA, link]
-Popular Science: With reference to reference genes


Wille, M., A. Avril, C. Tolf, A. Schager, S. Larsson, O. Borg, B. Olsen, and J. Waldenström. 2015. Temporal dynamics, diversity, and interplay in three components of the virodiversity of a Mallard population: Influenza A virus, avian paramyxovirus and avian coronavirus. Infection, Genetics, and Evolution. 29: 129-137 [$, link]
-Popular Science: Three viruses one duck

Gillman, A., S. Muradrasoli, A. Mårdnäs, H. Söderström, G. Fedorova, M. Löwenthal, M. Wille, A. Daggfeldt, J. D. Järhult. 2015. Oseltamivir resistance in influenza A(H6N2) caused by an R292K substitution in neuraminidase is not maintained in Mallards without drug pressure. PLoS ONE 10(9): e0139415. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0139415 [OA, link]

Isaksson, J., L. Christerson, M. Blomqvist, M. Wille, L. A. Alladio, K. Sachse, B. Olsen, D. González-Acuña, B. Herrmann. 2015. Chlamydiaceae-like bacterium, but no Chlamydia psittaci, in sea birds from Antarctica. Polar Biology. doi: 10.1007/s00300-015-1748-2 [$, link]

Gillman, A., M. Nykvist, S. Muradrasoli, H. Söderström, M. Wille, A. Daggfeldt, C. Bröjer, J. Waldenström, B. Olsen, J. D Järhult. 2015. Influenza A (H7N9) virus acquires resistance-related neuraminidase I222T Substitution when infected Mallards are exposed to low levels of Oseltamivir in water. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 59: 5196-5202 [OA, link]


Wille, M., P. Van Run, J. Waldenström, and T. Kuiken. 2014. Are positive oropharyngeal RRT-PCR samples indicative of low pathogenic influenza A infection in the respiratory tract of Mallard Anas platyrhynchos? Veterinary Research. 45:53 doi. 10.1186/1297-9716-45-53 [OA, link]
-Popular Science: Front or back – which end of the duck should you swab?

Huang, Y. H., M. Wille, H. Munro, A. L. Bond, D. Fifield, G. J. Robertson, D. Ojkic, H. Whitney, and A. S. Lang. 2014. Perpetuation and reassortment of gull influenza A viruses in Atlantic Canada. Virology. 456-457, 353–363. [$, link]

Latorre-Margalef, N., C. Tolf, V. Grobois, D. Bengtsson, M. Wille, A.D.M.E. Osterhaus, R.A.M Fouchier, B. Olsen and J. Waldenström. 2014. Long term variation in influenza A virus prevalence and subtype diversity in a migratory Mallard population. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281: doi: 10.1098/rspb.2014.0098 [$, link]
-Popular Science: What can 1081 influenza viruses tell you?

Huang, Y. Y., M. Wille, A. Dobbin, N. M. Walzthoni, G. J. Robertson, D. Ojkic, H. Whitney, and A. S. Lang. 2014. Genetic structure of avian influenza viruses from ducks of the Atlantic flyway of North America. PLoS ONE. 9: doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0086999 [OA, link]

Wille, M.*, Huang, Y.Y.*, G. J. Robertson, P. Ryan, S. I. Wilhelm, D. Fifield, A. L. Bond, A. Granter, H. Munro, R. Buxton, I. L. Jones, M. G. Fitzsummons, C. Burke, L. McFarlane Tranquilla, M. Rector, L. Takahashi, A.-L. Kouwenberg, A. Storey, C. Walsh, A. Hedd, W. A. Montevecchi, J. A. Runstadler, D. Ojkic, H. Whitney, and A. S. Lang. 2014. Evaluation of Seabirds in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, as Hosts of Influenza A Viruses. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 50:98-103. [$, link]


Huang, Y. Y., M. Wille, A. Dobbin, G. J. Robertson, P. Ryan, D. Ojkic, H. Whitney, and A. S. Lang. 2013. A 4-year study of avian influenza virus prevalence and subtype diversity in ducks of Newfoundland, Canada. Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 59: 701–708 [$, link]

Tolf, C., M. Wille, A.-K. Haidar, A. Avril, S. Zohari, and J. Waldenström. 2013. Prevalence of avian paramyxovirus type 1 in Mallards during autumn migration in the western Baltic Sea region. Virology Journal 10: 285. doi:10.1186/1743-422X-10-285 [OA, link]

Wille, M., C. Tolf, A. Avril, N. Latorre-Margalef, S. Wallenström, B. Olsen, and J.Waldenström. 2013. Frequency and direction of reassortment in natural influenza A virus infection in a reservoir host. Virology 443: 150-160. doi: [$, link]
-Popular Science: How do you do, the things that you do, Mr. Flu?

Tolf, C., N. Latorre-Margalef, M. Wille, D. Bengtsson, S.. G. Gunnarsson, V. Grosbois , D. Hasselquist , B. Olsen, J.Elmberg and J. Waldenström. 2013. Individual variation in influenza A virus infection histories and long-term immune responses in Mallards. PLoS ONE. 8(4): e61201. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0061201 [OA, link]


Tolf, C, D. Bengtsson, D. Rodrigues, N. Latorre-Margalef, M. Wille, M. –E. Figueiredo, M. Jankowska-Hjortaas, A. Germundsson, P.-Y. Duby, C. Lebarbenchon, M. Gauthier-Clerc, B. Olsen and J. Waldenström. 2012. Birds and viruses at a crossroad – surveillance of influenza A virus in Portuguese waterfowl. PLoS ONE 7(11): e49002. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049002. [OA, link]


Wille, M, G. J. Robertson, H. Whitney, J. Runstadler, M. A. Bishop and A. S. Lang. 2011. Extensive geographic mosaicism in avian influenza viruses from gulls in the northern hemisphere. PLoS ONE. 6:e20664. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0020664 [OA, link]


Wille, M., G. J. Robertson, H. Whitney, D. Ojkic, and A. S. Lang. 2010. A possible role of Great Black-backed Gulls (Larus marinus) in intercontinental avian influenza virus exchange across the North Atlantic Ocean. Archives of Virology. 156:107-115. [$, link]

Granter, A, M. Wille, H. Whitney, G. J. Robertson, D. Ojkic, and A. S. Lang. 2010. The complete genome sequence of an H11N2 avian influenza virus from a Thick-billed Murre (Uria lomvia) shows close relationships to viruses from other marine avian hosts. Virus Genes 41:224-230. [$, link]